United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Peckham, S.H., D.M. Their susceptibility to oil and the proximity to major oil tanker routes make them particularly vulnerable to oil spills. Marine Mammal Science 7(3):211-229. Pacific Rim National Park, Johnstone Strait Marine Mammal Interpretative Society Museum and others). The NTC carried out summer boat surveys using dedicated and incidental survey methods in several areas (e.g. River otter populations declined significantly throughout the late 1800s due to over-harvesting and water pollution. United States Fish and Wildlife Service. 2007). (1998) hypothesize that because of dramatic declines in seal and sea lion populations in response to a large-scale ecosystem shift, mammal-eating Killer Whales have switched to preying on Sea Otters in western Alaska and are the cause of the observed decline in the Sea Otter population. 1982; Watson 1993; Estes and Duggins 1995). Undertake annual surveys of the Sea Otter population in index areas, areas of range expansion, and other portions of their range as needed, as well as a total population survey every five years, to monitor population trends and distribution. British Columbia had an estimated population of 4,712 animals in 2008. In four volumes. Estes, J.A. The provincial government also established the Checleset Bay Ecological Reserve in 1981, protecting 33,321 ha of marine habitat, or 3% of the Area of Occurrence for the species in Canada. 1990. Miller M.A., R.M. Evaluation of cardiac lesions and risk factors associated with myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). Success in the management of this species depends on the commitment and cooperation of many different constituencies that will be involved in implementing the directions set out in this strategy and will not be achieved by Fisheries and Oceans Canada and the Parks Canada Agency, or any other jurisdiction alone. Prior to the maritime fur trade of the 18th and 19th centuries, Sea Otters ranged from northern Japan to central Baja California, Mexico but commercial exploitation commencing in the 1740’s led to near extinction of the species. Heiltsuk fisheries staff has been involved in developing communication and education materials for central British Columbia coast communities about Sea Otters and Northern Abalone. Long-term effects of the ‘Exxon Valdez’ oil spill: sea otter foraging in the intertidal as a pathway of exposure to lingering oil. 527-533, in E.E.A. Victoria. 2011. 2002. However large legacy repositories of PCBs in soils and bottom sediments are available for recycling via atmospheric transport to other areas (Garrett and Ross 2010). Veterinary Parasitology 172:183–194. Portland. Coastal freshwater runoff is a risk factor for Toxoplasma gondii infection of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). Checleset Bay, Kyoquot Sound, Nuchatlitz, Nootka Island and Clayoquot Sound) as well as winter aerial surveys in Clayoquot Sound (2002-2008). Conservation plan for the sea otter in Alaska. Section 52 Application. comm. *IMPORTANT NOTICE AND DISCLAIMER: DFO does not assume any responsibility for the quality of information, products or services listed in the Web sites provided above. In 2019, the Inaugural Sea Otter Canada Festival will be held at Blue Mountain in Ontario, Canada. Alaska Department of Fish and Game Technical Bulletin 7. Gill, and K. Kannan. The Sea Otter resides within the West Coast of Vancouver Island and the central coast of British Columbia, and has been seen within waters administered by the Parks Canada Agency. Recent population surveys (2008) indicate the Canadian Sea Otter population includes a minimum of 4,110 animals along the west coast of Vancouver Island and 602 animals on the central British Columbia coast. 2010a). Since then the demand for oil has increased to over five billion litres through the Port of Vancouver in 2010 and further substantial increases are proposed (Vancouver Metro Port Authority 2010; Kinder Morgan 2010). Ornithol. These conservation measures should include but are not limited to the following: To protect Sea Otters from threats to their conservation, research is needed to identify and clarify the significance of threats and factors that may limit Sea Otter population growth and range expansion. 2009). $25 . Academic Press, San Diego, California. Guruge, N.J. Thomas, S. Tanabe and J.P. Giesy. Tinker, M.T. Development of standardized survey procedure (2001 to 2004). Examine and support mitigation options, such as spatial/temporal closures, in areas where fisheries interactions are known to occur. Bowlby, and M. Staedler. VanBlaricom. Ecology of sea otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. 2011a. Anthony, R.G., A.K. 1998. 1980. The Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris) is a marine mammal that was listed as a species of “Special Concern” under the Species at Risk Act (SARA) in March 2009. 5 pp. 32 pp. 2009. Laboratory animal studies have conclusively demonstrated that such chemicals are endocrine disrupting, with effects observed on reproduction, the immune system, and growth and development. J. Stockdale and G. Goulding, London, United Kingdom. Gearin, P.J., M.E. Butyltin residues in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found dead along California coastal waters. 1984. 2002. Doak, J.A Estes, B.B. (1997) estimated population growth to be 18.6% per year from 1977 to 1995 on Vancouver Island. Larson, S., R. Jameson, M. Etnier, M. Flemings. Sea Otter; Sea Pens; Sea Strawberry; Seamounts; Snow crab; Sockeye Salmon; Spiny Dogfish; Thick-billed Murres; Thorny Skate; Tufted Puffin ; Yelloweye Rockfish; the Full Creature Index Show Your Support With a Donation. Allowing affected communities to control the animal might offer some redress. Stein, W.L. Canadian Journal of Zoology 62:637-647. Kudela, A. Mekebri, D. Crane, S.C. Oates, M.T. By 1911, the world population numbered fewer than 2,000 animals (Kenyon 1969). It has been placed “We don’t have a treaty with anyone.”. 2000b. Garshelis, D.L., A.M. Johnson, and J.A. Figure 1: Sea otter population measured off the coast of Vancouver Island Sea otters once ranged from Northern Japan to central Baja California, and had an estimated global population of between 150,000 and 300,000. Many ecologists are quick to praise the so-called “rewilding” effort, as the otters have begun altering their ecosystem closer to an unexploited state. 2011). Final report of the States/British Columbia oil spill task force. The maritime fur trade in southern Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands), ca. D.F. Sea Otters are nearshore animals with strong site fidelity, and will remain in or return to oiled areas. Conrad, T.E. Ballachey, H.A. 2009. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the plan itself, but are also summarized below. coastline, in a back-from-the-brink recovery some hail as a conservation success story, but others—especially West Coast First Nations—believe is already upsetting the balance of local ecosystems. Palmisano. However, it is recognized that plans may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. “These commercial fisheries may not be possible, or they may have to change in the presence of sea otters,” says Gregr. This shows that Canadian Pacific waters are an active waterway with heavy vessel traffic. Gorbics, C.S., G.R. Miller, M.A., P.A. Highest predicted probability is closer to the coastline and along the shelf on the west coast of Vancouver Island. The sea otter population within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary is estimated to be more than 1,200. To fuel their metabolism they need adequate food. took place between 1969 and 1972, when the Canadian and U.S. governments moved 89 otters from Alaska to Checleset Bay, on the island’s northwest coast. Transmission of Toxoplasma: Clues from the study of sea otters as sentinels of Toxoplasma gondii flow into the marine environment. 65(1):75-100. Sea-otters: Their role in structuring nearshore communities. Bodkin. In 2010, the Government of Canada launched a recovery plan with the goal of reaching a population size where even a catastrophic event would not severely diminish or even extirpate the sea otter population. Worldwide there are 12 species of otters. 1999. COSEWIC recommended the lower risk level of the population because of the successful beginnings of repopulation in its historic range since re-introduction. Is expected to affect the species very soon. Prior to the Maritime fur trade of the 18th and 19th centuries, an estimated 150,000 to 300,000 sea otters lived along the Pacific Rim, ranging from northern Japan to the Baja peninsula. (2002) examined, the genetic diversity of the Canadian Sea Otter population compared to other extant populations, as well as pre-fur trade ancestors, is not known. This draft Management Plan was posted to the DFO Pacific Region Consultation website for a public comment period from September 26 – October 29, 2012. With their return, there is a need to raise the level of understanding of the role of Sea Otters in structuring nearshore ecosystems and the threats to Sea Otters and their habitat. The abundance of prey affects juvenile survival, whereas female reproductive rates in the population remain relatively constant regardless of whether the population is growing or stable and at equilibrium. Within Washington State, Sea Otters are listed as State Endangered under the Special Species Policy. Entry to the Expo is free to everyone. However, individual adult males establish and occupy breeding territories in female areas. Most pesticidal uses of DDT were phased out in the early to mid-1970s but in many tropical countries DDT is still used for the control of malaria and hence transport of DDT likely occurs by atmospheric transport (Garrett and Ross 2010). 2007. An initial draft of the management plan, along with a discussion guide and feedback form, was made available on the website noted above. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2677: viii + 188 pp. The public is encouraged to report suspicious behaviour immediately to the 24-hour Observe, Record Report line at 1-800-465-4336. Maintaining information exchange and/or collaboration with researchers and managers working on populations of Sea Otters in other jurisdictions will assist in understanding factors that may regulate population growth in British Columbia. 2003. Boogaards, and R. Abernethy. Brancato et al. Overall, the threat ofpersistent bioaccumulating toxins is considered to be a “low” level of concern at this time. Ross P.S. USFW. Bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by marine organisms. Sea otters were originally found throughout the north Pacific including Japan, Russia, the United States, Canada and Mexico. 1989. A voyage round the world but more particularly to the North West Coast of America performed in 1785, 1786, 1787, and 1788, in the King George and Queen Charlotte, Captains Portlock and Dixon. 46 pp. Overall, the threat ofhuman disturbance is considered to be a “low” level of concern due to the remote distribution of most of the Sea Otter population. Sources and impacts of natural predation on the Sea Otter population in coastal British Columbia are not well documented. 2009). Enbridge Northern Gateway Project 2010. Density dependence and risk of extinction in a small population of sea otters. 1980. Further, this does not apply to vessels carrying other cargo which could still be of concern due to their fuel tanks in the event of a grounding. Staedler, and M.D. Gardner, C. Kreuder, D.M. Reeves, R.R. Ames, T.E. 2009). Ballachey, D.B. Phocine Distemper Virus in Northern Sea Otters in the Pacific Ocean, Alaska, USA. DeGange, A.R., and M.M. 2009). Following re-introduction, the British Columbia Sea Otter population grew rapidly (18.6% per year) from 1977 to 1995 on Vancouver Island. 2005). Risk Assessment and Management of Spills – Marine Transportation. Reisewitz, S.E., J.A. Large-scale hunting, part of the Maritime Fur Trade, which would eventually kill approximately one million sea otters, began in the 18th century when hunters and traders began to arrive from all over the world to meet foreign demand for otter pelts, which were one of the world's most valua… Hammond. Now, the population has grown to just less than 3,500 individuals, but since this number is still low, the Sea Otter is a Species at Risk in Canada. The effects of oil contamination and cleaning on sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Thanks to conservation efforts, the population … Through DFO’s Marine Mammal Response Program, Sea Otters found dead are collected for necropsy and disease screening. 2005; Goldstein et al. However, individual adult males establish and occupy breeding territories in female areas (Garshelis et al. 1996. Sea Otters in British Columbia are descendants of the successful re-introductions of 89 Sea Otters (1969 to 1972). 2012). They swim belly up with their front paws in the air, using the webbed hind feet for propulsion. Map altered from Serra-Sogas 2010. Prepared for: Habitat Stewardship Program. 1984. The area is closed to shellfish harvesting. Numbers are small (<3,500) and require careful monitoring. “And then,” he says, “they just multiplied like crazy.”. The following three broad strategies support the management objectives outlined in Section 5. Recent population surveys (2008) indicate the Canadian Sea Otter population includes a minimum of 4,110 animals along the west coast of Vancouver Island and 602 animals on the central British Columbia coast. Environmental Science and Technology 32:1169-1175. 2007). 208 pp. 2007). Increased volumes transported, increased frequency of transits, and expanded area of transport would increase the risk from Vancouver Island to include the northern British Columbia coast and Hecate Strait. Ross. 1982. Additional samples have been stored for further study of contaminants and health effects. “We ended up with what we call urchin barrens,” Gregr says, “places that are basically devoid of plant life and are covered in urchins because they eat any kelps that happen to grow up.”. Key communities are noted as green dots with names (Sandspit, Prince Rupert, Bella Coola, Port Hardy). 2006. Coastal Marine Ecology and Conservation Lab, School of Resource and Environmental Management (REM), Simon Fraser University. There is also a proposed development for the Northern British Columbia coast to transport dilute bitumen from Kitimat, British Columbia to Asia Pacific and US markets via149 outbound transits per year using Very Large Crude Carrier tankers (more than two times the size of the Exxon Valdez) and 71 inbound transits of tankers carrying condensate (Enbridge Northern Gateway Project 2010). Under the Species at Risk Act (S.C. 2002, c.29) (SARA), the federal competent ministers are responsible for the preparation of management plans for listed species of special concern and are required to report on progress within five years. Mortality results directly from disease (limiting factor) caused by the novel pathogens (threat) and possibly influenced by reduced immune-competence resulting from contaminant body burden (threat), but also via increased predation (a limiting factor) by sharks of sick animals. Bodkin. DeGange, and B.S. While the extent of accidental drowning of Sea Otters in fishing gear in coastal British Columbia is unknown, there are verified reports of Sea Otter accidental drownings related to net and crab gear (DFO Marine Mammal Response Program, unpublished data). (2000) provides a compilation of population estimates for North America and Russia of about 126,000 otters based on data from the late 1990s. The sea otter, Enhydra lutris. Summer resident grey whales occupy the same habitat as Sea Otters in some areas on the west coast of Vancouver Island. Sea Otters occupy coastal marine habitats and these are the interface between the terrestrial and the marine. Canadian Journal of Zoology 81:1494-1510. The effects of the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) foraging on shallow rocky communities off northwestern Vancouver Island, British Columbia. 5 Priority reflects the degree to which the action contributes directly to the conservation of the species or is an essential precursor to an action that contributes to the conservation of the species. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency’s database of domoic acid sampling from marine invertebrates from the west coast of Vancouver Island (1994 – 2004), and information in the scientific literature indicates that domoic acid has been detected in British Columbia but typically at low levels (only 9 of 166 samples between 1994 and 2004 exceeded 20ppm). Kreuder C., M.A. in: P.E.T. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)were used and imported into Canada primarily from the US until their manufacture in the US was formally banned in 1979. In a small sample of beach-cast carcasses retrieved for contaminant analysis in California, those that died from infectious disease contained, on average, higher concentrations of butyltin compounds (components in antifouling paint) and DDTs than animals that had died from trauma and unknown causes (Kannan et al. Significant knowledge gaps exist with regard to understanding habitat use and seasonal habitat use is not well understood. 2002. 2005. The loss of a raft of male Sea Otters may have less reproductive impact than the loss of a raft of female Sea Otters because of the species’ polygynous mating system. Red Tides. PAHs: An Ecotoxicological Perspective. The decline in western Alaska suggests that a better understanding and appreciation of sources of density-independent factors impacting the Canadian Sea Otter population may be warranted. There is some debate about this hypothesis but it has been accepted by the US recovery team as the most likely explanation for the observed decline (Kuker and Barrett-Lennard 2010; USFW 2010). Gulland, and M.E. Canadian Journal of Zoology 66:2776-2781. The activity will result in mortality of individuals most of which will be retrieved but there will inevitably be a number of struck and lost. Marine Mammal Science 9:343-359. 1993). 1969. Predicted probability of oil pollution per area by weight of percentage is colour-shaded, with low percentage probability being a light shade of blue and increasing probability being a darker shade of blue, with the following scale: < 1%, 5%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and white being no data. Archaeological records and traditional knowledge, Salomon notes, show that Indigenous communities coexisted with otters for thousands of years, safeguarding their food and managing the mammals through hunting, but without the near-extirpation seen during the fur trade. But global estimates suggest sea otters numbered 150,000-300,000 in the early 1700s. 1992. Overall, the threat ofentanglement in fishing gear is currently considered to be a “medium” level of concern. Northward expansion of this population across Juan de Fuca Strait to Vancouver Island where there is suitable Sea Otter habitat is a future possibility (Gerber et al. Sea Otter populations that have re-established naturally after exploitation extend from the Gulf of Alaska westward through the Aleutian Archipelago to the Kamchatka Peninsula and the Kuril Archipelago and along the California coast. Meador, J.P., J.E. Prior to the fur trade the total range-wide population of Sea Otters is estimated to have been 150,000 to 300,000 Sea Otters, although some authors suggest the number may have been even larger (Kenyon 1969; Johnson 1982). Stewart. Dick, L. 2006. This consultation period was primarily web-based, and included mail-outs of hard copy letters, emails, and faxes to all coastal First Nations soliciting input and feedback on the draft Management Plan as well as an offer for bilateral meetings. Conservation measures under the broad strategy of management are provided in Table 3. Garrett, C., and P.S. 2002. Population. Assess the potential impacts of fisheries including competition for prey resources, bycatch and entanglement in fishing gear, and illegal mortality. “Those kinds of things have certainly affected many of the communities that are very isolated, and that do not have direct access to the Co-op grocery store, if you will.”. Duggins. Comparison of organochlorine contaminants among sea otters (Enhydra lutris) populations in California and Alaska. 1996. Sea Otter Canada is an extension of the iconic Sea Otter global brand with Sea Otter Classic (arguably the world’s largest cycling festival) in Monterey, California in its 30th year. A voyage of discovery to the North Pacific Ocean and round the world 1791–1795 by George Vancouver, with an introduction and appendices. Long-term stresses include reduced reproductive success; chronic contamination through exposure to contaminated sediment and prey (degradation of habitat as a result of contaminated sediment and prey). Vacca. Develop Sea Otter-specific measures for inclusion into catastrophic spill response programs, such as the Oiled Wildlife Regulatory Agency Working Group. 2004) and seem to be strongly influenced by oceanographic characteristics (Whyte et al. Promoting and enforcing compliance with legislation that protects sea otters. Jameson, R.J. 1989. The potential for the plan to inadvertently lead to adverse effects on other species was considered. The proposed area includes the Scott Islands archipelago (Lanz, Cox, Sartine, Bereford and Triangle Islands) and surrounding marine area. As of 2017, Fisheries and Oceans Canada estimated B.C.’s otter population at more than 8,000, reoccupying somewhere between a quarter to a third of their historic range in the province. Loughlin T.R. Then in 1914 a remnant population of about 50 southern sea otters was found along the rugged Big Sur shoreline. Chronic oil spills are frequent but typically small discharges of less than 1000 litres where the point sources typically remain unidentified (O’Hara et al. 4 Refer to Figure 1 and Table 1 for Sea Otter abundance estimates and distribution. 1988. Gerber L.R., and G.R. The first row lists the column headings for the subsequent rows describing the threat attributes, as follows: attribute, level of effect, and description of the level of effect. When present, kelp beds are often used habitually as rafting sites (Loughlin 1980; Jameson 1989). [accessed November 2011]. The oil spill response planning document highlighted the current state of oil spill response in British Columbia and identified a ramp-up procedure depending on the situation from monitoring to pre-emptive capture and finally capture of oiled Sea Otters. Data compiled from Transport Canada’s National Aerial Surveillance Program (NASP) from October 1997 to March 2006 indicates that Sea Otters are found in areas with relatively high predicted chronic oil spill occurrences over a ten year period (Figure 3). Status re-examined and confirmed Endangered in April 1986. Marine Mammal Science 21(1):169-172. 1 Within British Columbia, species and ecological communities are assigned to a list (e.g. The Sea Otter has been assigned Endangered status by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (cosewic), and receives legal protec-tion as a marine mammal under the Canada Fisheries Act. Improve our understanding of the degree of interchange with adjacent populations to assess potential for rescue effect. Packham, S. Toy-Choutka, A.C. Melli, M.A. Marine Ecology 7(1):13-20. University of California, Santa Cruz, California. Lee, L., A. Salomon, and B. Davis. Presently, the Sea Otter occupies about one half to two thirds of its historical range throughout the Pacific. Oikos 90:457-468. Ballachey, B.E., J.L. Overall, the threat ofoil spills is considered to be a “high” level of concern because of the highly vulnerable nature of the Sea Otter to oil, and the trend of increased volume and frequency of transport of heavy oil products in Canadian Pacific waters. Mortality or evidence of exposure (in live captured animals) to the following diseases has been documented in the northern Sea Otters: T. gonadi, S. nerona (British Columbia, Alaska, Washington); Leptospirosis (Washington);andCanine Distemper Virus (CDV) (Washington) and Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV) (Alaska), both of the genus Morbillivirus (Thomas and Cole 1996; Reeves 2002; Gill et al. International Journal for Parasitology 38:1319-1328. Based on surviving 18th century logbooks and voyage accounts between 1787and 1797, at least 11,000 pelts were obtained in trade in the Queen Charlotte Islands alone. Marine Ecology Progress Series 241:237-253. Miller, M.A., W.A. Stock Assessment Report: Sea otters (Enhydra lutris): Southcentral Alaska stock [PDF 385 Kb]. Harris, K.A., L.M. Sea Otters groom frequently to maintain the integrity of their fur and its ability to hold a layer of trapped air for insulation (reviewed in Riedman and Estes 1990). These concerns are captured in Coastal Voices, an online library featuring scientists, Indigenous leaders and Elders who discuss the effects of the otters’ return to their territories. 2010a. Although a harvest is not itself a threat, close monitoring of this activity will be required. USFW. The risk of disease and threats to the wild population. 2008. 2000b). Vertical distribution and probability of encountering intertidal Exxon Valdez oil on shorelines of three embayments within Prince William Sound, Alaska. Studies in the Aleutian Islands indicate that communities dominated by Sea Otters are up to two to three times more productive than systems without Sea Otters because of the kelp-derived carbon (Duggins et al. 2003. From the stern of a skiff speeding away from Vancouver Island, Joe Martin trains a steely gaze on the scattered islets just west of Tofino. 1982. Esslinger, K.A. Reichert, and U. Varanasi. 1997. Status re-examined and designated Threatened in April 1996 and in May 2000. Thus, contaminant exposure could threaten Sea Otters by negatively affecting immune response to disease and/or disrupting reproduction and development resulting in reproductive failure. Estes, J.L.Bodkin, and D.B. Estes. Bodkin. 181 pp. Riedman, M.L., and J.A. Studies with captive Sea Otters demonstrate that Sea Otters will attempt to enter a trap and can do so through relatively small openings (Hatfield et al. Although natural predation is thought to be relatively low (Watson et al. Carrying little fat beneath those dense, fur coats, the animals need to consume more than 20 per cent of their body weight each day to stay warm in the water, which makes them a competitive threat to commercial fisheries harvesting urchin or other shellfish. The following is a description of the threats presented in Table 2. 171 pp. Harris. 1993. 2003. Ross. Sea Otter distribution and abundance are inter-related. PCB concentrations have been measured in some Sea Otter populations and were found to be higher in Alaskan Sea Otters from the Aleutian Islands (309μg/kg wet weight) compared to Sea Otters from California (185μg/kg wet weight) and southeast Alaska (8μg/kg wet weight) (Bacon et al. 2002, Ballachey et al. The activities implemented by responsible jurisdictions will be subject to the availability of funding and other required resources. The management objective for the Sea Otter is to conserve abundance and distribution in Canada as observed in 20084, and promote the continued population growth and expansion into formerly occupied regions such as Haida Gwaii, Barkley Sound, and north mainland British Columbia coast. Unless otherwise stated, these measures are specific to the Sea Otter population in Canada. In unsustainable levels of by-catch ( Peckham et al Metro Port Authority into the! 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Miller, Pathogen exposure and contaminants in sea Otter population grew rapidly ; 1993. -1,1,1-Trichloroethane ( DDT ) is a map highlighting the historic and current global of... T. gondii was found in live captured animals ( Kenyon 1969 ) ( 2001 to 2004 ) coast, Bella. Of officers to respond to reports in section 5, Seattle, and no small amount of human.... Equilibrium ( Monson et al invertebrates that feed other parts of the year H. Dabritz,.! Consultation period has been incorporated into the plan to support the management and. Viewing and other boating activities nearshore waters as a result of exposure to gondii! Canada web page long-term population ‘ ‘ sink ’ ’ for sea Otters Murray, K. Kannan L.! To return along the Aleutian Archipelago sea Otter-specific measures for inclusion into catastrophic spill response programs, such as sex! Dfo Pacific region has a web page describing the sea Otter Canada Festival will be subject to appropriations,,! Fumes or ingestion of marine biotoxins capacity for sea Otters and kelp forest in... Kyuquot, British Columbia N.J. Thomas, S. Toy-Choutka, C. Kreuder P.A!

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